Contemporary Chaos and Disorder: Understanding the Causes – Islamic and Modern Perspectives

The prevailing contemporary "chaos" and "disorder" have many different connotations and applications. We will examine multiple meanings of chaos/disorder from Islamic and contemporary academics in the context of this scholarly topic. We may comprehend the idea completely by looking at these points of view.

Islamic perspectives on disorder and chaos

From a Quranic perspective

Islam's most important religious source, the Quran, provides explanations of the idea of chaos and disorder. The Arabic word for chaos (fasaad) means the absence of harmony and tranquility. According to the Quran (2:205), it refers to any behavior or circumstance that promotes injustice, corruption, and unbalance in society. According to the Quran (30:41), the disorder results from departing from Allah's instructions because it upsets the natural order and causes social, economic, and moral unrest.

Perspective from the Hadith:

The Hadith, or the words and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad, adds to our understanding of the idea of disorder and chaos. The Prophet Muhammad stressed the significance of preserving order and averting disorder in society. Injustice, tyranny, and violence are among the things he denounced (Hadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 78). The disease is viewed as a test for people and a warning of what happens when we go from the straight and narrow.

Modern Perspectives on Chaos and Disorder:

Scientific Perspective:

According to chaos theory, a state of apparent randomness and unpredictability within a system is referred to as disorder. Chaos theory investigates complex systems that have sensitive initial condition dependencies that lead to nonlinear and frequently unexpected behavior. It highlights how components of a system are interconnected and dependent on one another, emphasizing how incremental changes can have significant long-term effects (Gleick, 1987, p. 25).

Social Perspective

From a sociological perspective, the disorder is seen as the result of the dissolution of social norms and the lack of social control. It describes circumstances where people or groups act in ways that are disruptive and cause a breakdown in the social order. Sociological perspectives on disorder investigate the elements that contribute to social unrest, such as inequality, deviance, and power dynamics (Barkan, 2018, p. 72).

Psychological Perspective

From a psychological perspective, the terms "chaos" and "disorder" can refer to issues with mental or emotional functioning. It encompasses ailments that impair a person's capacity for successful functioning, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The causes, symptoms, and treatments of many mental health diseases are examined by psychological views on disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, p. 20).

In short, the idea of chaos or disorder has many facets and can be interpreted in a variety of ways from both traditional Islamic and contemporary viewpoints. Islamic viewpoints emphasize the destruction of justice, peace, and morality, emphasizing the significance of following divine direction. Modern approaches, on the other hand, examine complex systems, social norms, and mental health in order to examine the scientific, sociological, and psychological components of the condition.

Causes and consequences of chaos/disorder

We obtain a richer knowledge of the origins and effects of chaos/disorder in various circumstances by taking into account these distinct points of view. The ultimate goal is to address the root causes of chaos and work toward social harmony, fairness, and peace.

Types of Chaos/disorder:

Understanding the many forms and dimensions of chaos and disorder that might appear in society is crucial in the effort to solve the causes of misunderstanding in contemporary society.

Moral Decline:

The deterioration of moral standards and ideals in society is referred to as moral decay. Honesty, corruption, immorality, and unethical behavior are some of their outward manifestations (Qur'an 25:68).  Disregarding moral principles results in conflict, unfairness, and a general breakdown of social order.

Social Injustice

When there is an imbalance in the fairness, equity, and equitable allocation of resources within society, social injustice results. According to the Quran (57:25), it includes issues like oppression, exploitation, prejudice, and poverty. Chaos and disorder are exacerbated by social injustice, which sows seeds of resentment, social discontent, and alienation.

Lack of Unity and Division:

Discord and lack of unity can result from social divisions caused by differences in race, religion, or social class. Conflicts, bigotry, and the disintegration of societal cohesion happen when individuals are divided and fail to see their shared humanity (Quran 3:103). For stability to be preserved and turmoil to be avoided, unity and harmony are necessary.

Ignorance and Misdirection:

Ignorance and misdirection cause confusion and a skewed perception of reality. Discord in society is a result of ignorance, false information, and a lack of critical thinking (Quran 9:122). The fight against ignorance and the encouragement of clarity of mind depends heavily on education and the quest for knowledge.

Lack of Leadership and Governance:

Disorder and turmoil can result from ineffective or crooked leadership and governance institutions. An atmosphere of instability and uncertainty is produced by poor decision-making, the abuse of authority, and a lack of responsibility (Hadith: Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 36, Hadith 4205). Social stability requires just leadership and good administration.

Overload of Technology:

In the modern era, technological breakthroughs have the potential to cause havoc if employed improperly or are not properly controlled. Social order can be disrupted by an over-reliance on technology, the dissemination of false information through social media, and the loss of privacy (Hadith: Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 50). Technology must be used ethically and responsibly if civilization is to remain stable and avoid disaster.

Economic instability

Economic instability is characterized by rapid inflation, high unemployment, unequal income distribution, and financial crises. It is the fluctuation and unpredictability of the economic system. It can cause the population to feel insecure, poor, and socially restless. In order to avoid economic turmoil, it is crucial to guarantee a just and equitable economic structure that offers chances to everyone and encourages sustainable development (Quran 83:1-4).

Environmental Deterioration:

The unsustainable use of natural resources, pollution, deforestation, and climate change all contribute to environmental degradation. It may result in ecological imbalances, biodiversity loss, and ecosystem disruption. The effects of environmental chaos on human health, way of life, and social stability are extensive. Environmental chaos must be avoided by fostering environmental awareness, good Earth care, and sustainable behaviors (Qur'an 30:41).

Cultural Division:

When cultures experience a breakdown of common values, customs, and cultural cohesion, it is referred to as cultural division. Rapid globalization, cultural blending, and the deterioration of cultural identities can all contribute to it. Identity loss, social isolation, and conflicts stemming from cultural differences are all caused by cultural anarchy. Social peace and the avoidance of cultural turmoil are facilitated through respecting and conserving other cultures, encouraging intercultural conversation, and encouraging a sense of cultural pride (Quran 49:13).

Lack of Education and Knowledge:

Lack of Education and Knowledge: A lack of access to high-quality learning opportunities and information can fuel intellectual and social disarray. Ignorance is bred by illiteracy, a lack of access to higher education, and a lack of critical thinking abilities. Education is a crucial instrument for fostering tolerance, self-improvement, and wise decision-making.

In order to avoid the anarchy that results from a lack of education, it is crucial to ensure that everyone has access to education and to promote a culture of lifelong learning (Hadith: Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 25, Hadith 3634).

Moral Relativism:

The idea that moral standards and values are arbitrary and differ from person to person or culture to culture is known as moral relativism. It encourages a lack of ethical clarity and undercuts the idea of universal moral principles. Moral relativism causes turmoil in societies because people put their own preferences before moral commitments. Moral relativism leads to anarchy, which can be avoided by upholding and advancing universal moral norms based on the teachings of the Quran and Hadith (Quran 2:177).

The Disintegration of Family Values:

The deterioration of familial ties and the dissolution of traditional family structures are both examples of the disintegration of family values. Social turmoil is a result of issues including divorce, neglect, and frayed family ties. A stable society is based on strong family groups that are focused on affection, compassion, and support for one another. The chaos brought on by the breakdown of family values can be avoided by valuing family and encouraging strong family ties (Hadith: Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 36, Hadith 4018).

An atmosphere that is more stable, harmonic, and ordered can be achieved by addressing these many forms of chaos and their root causes.


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.

Barkan, S. E. (2018). Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World. Flat World Knowledge.

Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a New Science. Penguin Books.

Holy Quran.


Sunan Ibn-e-Majah.


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